Rules that flag issues when dealing with multiple threads of execution.
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AvoidSynchronizedAtMethodLevel

Since: PMD 3.0

Priority: Medium (3)

Method-level synchronization can cause problems when new code is added to the method. Block-level synchronization helps to ensure that only the code that needs synchronization gets it.

//MethodDeclaration[@Synchronized='true']

Example(s):

public class Foo {
  // Try to avoid this:
  synchronized void foo() {
  }
  // Prefer this:
  void bar() {
    synchronized(this) {
    }
  }

  // Try to avoid this for static methods:
  static synchronized void fooStatic() {
  }

  // Prefer this:
  static void barStatic() {
    synchronized(Foo.class) {
    }
  }
}

Use this rule by referencing it:

<rule ref="category/java/multithreading.xml/AvoidSynchronizedAtMethodLevel" />

AvoidThreadGroup

Since: PMD 3.6

Priority: Medium (3)

Avoid using java.lang.ThreadGroup; although it is intended to be used in a threaded environment it contains methods that are not thread-safe.

//AllocationExpression/ClassOrInterfaceType[pmd-java:typeof(@Image, 'java.lang.ThreadGroup')]|
//PrimarySuffix[contains(@Image, 'getThreadGroup')]

Example(s):

public class Bar {
    void buz() {
        ThreadGroup tg = new ThreadGroup("My threadgroup");
        tg = new ThreadGroup(tg, "my thread group");
        tg = Thread.currentThread().getThreadGroup();
        tg = System.getSecurityManager().getThreadGroup();
    }
}

Use this rule by referencing it:

<rule ref="category/java/multithreading.xml/AvoidThreadGroup" />

AvoidUsingVolatile

Since: PMD 4.1

Priority: Medium High (2)

Use of the keyword ‘volatile’ is generally used to fine tune a Java application, and therefore, requires a good expertise of the Java Memory Model. Moreover, its range of action is somewhat misknown. Therefore, the volatile keyword should not be used for maintenance purpose and portability.

//FieldDeclaration[contains(@Volatile,'true')]

Example(s):

public class ThrDeux {
  private volatile String var1; // not suggested
  private          String var2; // preferred
}

Use this rule by referencing it:

<rule ref="category/java/multithreading.xml/AvoidUsingVolatile" />

DoNotUseThreads

Since: PMD 4.1

Priority: Medium (3)

The J2EE specification explicitly forbids the use of threads.

//ClassOrInterfaceType[@Image = 'Thread' or @Image = 'Runnable']

Example(s):

// This is not allowed
public class UsingThread extends Thread {

}

// Neither this,
public class OtherThread implements Runnable {
    // Nor this ...
    public void methode() {
        Runnable thread = new Thread(); thread.run();
    }
}

Use this rule by referencing it:

<rule ref="category/java/multithreading.xml/DoNotUseThreads" />

DontCallThreadRun

Since: PMD 4.3

Priority: Medium Low (4)

Explicitly calling Thread.run() method will execute in the caller’s thread of control. Instead, call Thread.start() for the intended behavior.

//StatementExpression/PrimaryExpression
[
    PrimaryPrefix
    [
        ./Name[ends-with(@Image, '.run') or @Image = 'run']
        and substring-before(Name/@Image, '.') =//VariableDeclarator/VariableDeclaratorId/@Image
            [../../../Type/ReferenceType/ClassOrInterfaceType[typeof(@Image, 'java.lang.Thread', 'Thread')]]
        or (./AllocationExpression/ClassOrInterfaceType[typeof(@Image, 'java.lang.Thread', 'Thread')]
        and ../PrimarySuffix[@Image = 'run'])
    ]
]

Example(s):

Thread t = new Thread();
t.run();            // use t.start() instead
new Thread().run(); // same violation

Use this rule by referencing it:

<rule ref="category/java/multithreading.xml/DontCallThreadRun" />

DoubleCheckedLocking

Since: PMD 1.04

Priority: High (1)

Partially created objects can be returned by the Double Checked Locking pattern when used in Java. An optimizing JRE may assign a reference to the baz variable before it calls the constructor of the object the reference points to.

Note: With Java 5, you can make Double checked locking work, if you declare the variable to be volatile.

For more details refer to: http://www.javaworld.com/javaworld/jw-02-2001/jw-0209-double.html or http://www.cs.umd.edu/~pugh/java/memoryModel/DoubleCheckedLocking.html

This rule is defined by the following Java class: net.sourceforge.pmd.lang.java.rule.multithreading.DoubleCheckedLockingRule

Example(s):

public class Foo {
    /*volatile */ Object baz = null; // fix for Java5 and later: volatile
    Object bar() {
        if (baz == null) { // baz may be non-null yet not fully created
            synchronized(this) {
                if (baz == null) {
                    baz = new Object();
                }
              }
        }
        return baz;
    }
}

Use this rule by referencing it:

<rule ref="category/java/multithreading.xml/DoubleCheckedLocking" />

NonThreadSafeSingleton

Since: PMD 3.4

Priority: Medium (3)

Non-thread safe singletons can result in bad state changes. Eliminate static singletons if possible by instantiating the object directly. Static singletons are usually not needed as only a single instance exists anyway. Other possible fixes are to synchronize the entire method or to use an initialize-on-demand holder class.

Refrain from using the double-checked locking pattern. The Java Memory Model doesn’t guarantee it to work unless the variable is declared as volatile, adding an uneeded performance penalty. Reference

See Effective Java, item 48.

This rule is defined by the following Java class: net.sourceforge.pmd.lang.java.rule.multithreading.NonThreadSafeSingletonRule

Example(s):

private static Foo foo = null;

//multiple simultaneous callers may see partially initialized objects
public static Foo getFoo() {
    if (foo==null) {
        foo = new Foo();
    }
    return foo;
}

This rule has the following properties:

Name Default Value Description
checkNonStaticFields false Check for non-static fields. Do not set this to true and checkNonStaticMethods to false.
checkNonStaticMethods true Check for non-static methods. Do not set this to false and checkNonStaticFields to true.

Use this rule by referencing it:

<rule ref="category/java/multithreading.xml/NonThreadSafeSingleton" />

UnsynchronizedStaticDateFormatter

Since: PMD 3.6

Priority: Medium (3)

SimpleDateFormat instances are not synchronized. Sun recommends using separate format instances for each thread. If multiple threads must access a static formatter, the formatter must be synchronized either on method or block level.

This rule is defined by the following Java class: net.sourceforge.pmd.lang.java.rule.multithreading.UnsynchronizedStaticDateFormatterRule

Example(s):

public class Foo {
    private static final SimpleDateFormat sdf = new SimpleDateFormat();
    void bar() {
        sdf.format(); // poor, no thread-safety
    }
    synchronized void foo() {
        sdf.format(); // preferred
    }
}

Use this rule by referencing it:

<rule ref="category/java/multithreading.xml/UnsynchronizedStaticDateFormatter" />

UseConcurrentHashMap

Since: PMD 4.2.6

Priority: Medium (3)

Minimum Language Version: Java 1.5

Since Java5 brought a new implementation of the Map designed for multi-threaded access, you can perform efficient map reads without blocking other threads.

//Type[../VariableDeclarator/VariableInitializer//AllocationExpression/ClassOrInterfaceType[@Image != 'ConcurrentHashMap']]
/ReferenceType/ClassOrInterfaceType[@Image = 'Map']

Example(s):

public class ConcurrentApp {
  public void getMyInstance() {
    Map map1 = new HashMap();           // fine for single-threaded access
    Map map2 = new ConcurrentHashMap(); // preferred for use with multiple threads

    // the following case will be ignored by this rule
    Map map3 = someModule.methodThatReturnMap(); // might be OK, if the returned map is already thread-safe
  }
}

Use this rule by referencing it:

<rule ref="category/java/multithreading.xml/UseConcurrentHashMap" />

UseNotifyAllInsteadOfNotify

Since: PMD 3.0

Priority: Medium (3)

Thread.notify() awakens a thread monitoring the object. If more than one thread is monitoring, then only one is chosen. The thread chosen is arbitrary; thus its usually safer to call notifyAll() instead.

//StatementExpression/PrimaryExpression
[PrimarySuffix/Arguments[@ArgumentCount = '0']]
[
    PrimaryPrefix[
        ./Name[@Image='notify' or ends-with(@Image,'.notify')]
        or ../PrimarySuffix/@Image='notify'
        or (./AllocationExpression and ../PrimarySuffix[@Image='notify'])
    ]
]

Example(s):

void bar() {
    x.notify();
    // If many threads are monitoring x, only one (and you won't know which) will be notified.
    // use instead:
    x.notifyAll();
  }

Use this rule by referencing it:

<rule ref="category/java/multithreading.xml/UseNotifyAllInsteadOfNotify" />